During the Bubonic Plague, doctors wore these bird-like masks to avoid becoming sick. They would fill the beaks with spices and rose petals, so they wouldn’t have to smell the rotting bodies.
A theory during the Bubonic Plague was that the plague was caused by evil spirits. To scare the spirits away, the masks were intentionally designed to be creepy.
Mission fucking accomplished
Okay so I love this but it doesn’t cover the half of why the design is awesome and actually borders on making sense.
It wasn’t just that they didn’t want to smell the infected and dead, they thought it was crucial to protecting themselves. They had no way of knowing about what actually caused the plague, and so one of the other theories was that the smell of the infected all by itself was evil and could transmit the plague. So not only would they fill their masks with aromatic herbs and flowers, they would also burn fires in public areas, so that the smell of the smoke would “clear the air”. This all related to the miasma theory of contagion, which was one of the major theories out there until the 19th century. And it makes sense, in a way. Plague victims smelled awful, and there’s a general correlation between horrible septic smells and getting horribly sick if you’re around what causes them for too long.
You can see now that we’ve got two different theories as to what caused the plague that were worked into the design. That’s because the whole thing was an attempt by the doctors to cover as many bases as they could think of, and we’re still not done.
The glass eyepieces. They were either darkened or red, not something you generally want to have to contend with when examining patients. But the plague might be spread by eye contact via the evil eye, so best to ward that off too.
The illustration shows a doctor holding a stick. This was an examination tool, that helped the doctors keep some distance between themselves and the infected. They already had gloves on, but the extra level of separation was apparently deemed necessary. You could even take a pulse with it. Or keep people the fuck away from you, which was apparently a documented use.
Finally, the robe. It’s not just to look fancy, the cloth was waxed, as were all of the rest of their clothes. What’s one of the properties of wax? Water-based fluids aren’t absorbed by it. This was the closest you could get to a sterile, fully protecting garment back then. Because at least one person along the line was smart enough to think “Gee, I’d really rather not have the stuff coming out of those weeping sores anywhere on my person”.
So between all of these there’s a real sense that a lot of real thought was put into making sure the doctors were protected, even if they couldn’t exactly be sure from what. They worked with what information they had. And frankly, it’s a great design given what was available! You limit exposure to aspirated liquids, limit exposure to contaminated liquids already present, you limit contact with the infected. You also don’t give fleas any really good place to hop onto. That’s actually useful.
Beyond that, there were contracts the doctors would sign before they even got near a patient. They were to be under quarantine themselves, they wouldn’t treat patients without a custodian monitoring them and helping when something had to be physically contacted, and they would not treat non-plague patients for the duration. There was an actual system in place by the time the plague doctors really became a thing to make sure they didn’t infect anyone either.
These guys were the product of the scientific process at work, and the scientific process made a bitchin’ proto-hazmat suit. And containment protocols!
This map should be included in every history book.
I want an alt history novel where the USA looks like this.
instead of printing it off just use this blank thing that way you dont have to scan it or anything
so fill that out by pasting it in any art program and whatnot
then save it and upload it to that site
and itll give you an option to download it
so do that and then install it BAM
I JUST GOT THIS ON MY TABLET IT’S SO COOL OH MY GOD
and here we go: all current Flight Rising dragon breeds, all together! I used the average sizes for each breed, which is is as follows (in order from left to right in the second image):
- Imperial: 21m
- Ridgeback: 18m
- Guardian: 15m
- Snapper: 5m
- Pearlcatcher: 5.65m
- Mirror: 5.7m
- Wildclaw: 5m
- Tundra: 3.48
- Skydancer: 5.66
- Spiral: 3.25
- Fae: 1m
and again, the human silhouette is 1.83m/6’. this was a fun project and I think I can get back to actual arts now, and while I enjoy having this reference, I also still take dragon sizes with a big grain of salt (and don’t even get me started on wingspan & weights ok)!
you can also nab a larger size (2500x1185 pixels) of the second image over here on dA, and you can check out my tag #drag size chart for individual size charts of each breed (with smallest, largest & average).
I asked crayola.com if crayolas could be used to make lipstick. Here is their answer:
”Thank you for your recent inquiry.
We do not recommend the use of any Crayola products for intentional direct skin contact, except for Crayola Quick & Easy Face Paint kits. These face painting kits were tested and approved for this purpose and are available in US retail stores carrying Crayola products.”
#they also added a little Colourfully Yours at the end #which I thought was incredibly sweet #But I just posted the straight up fact #There is /no lead/ in crayolas #but they still advice you to use the face paint kits
You are 100% correct to be suspicious. Taken literally, what Hooper said there was “He ate well, although his diet was unbalanced and too high in carbohydrates”. In other words, if Jackman actually ate to lose weight, he ate less than a 19th century convict. At least, that’s very likely.
To give you some numbers
I have info on the rations from 1817, which is close enough:
917g of fresh black bread (or 700g of sea biscuit), 30g of cheese, 120g of dried beans, 4.9g of olive oil (or 8.82g of butter), 48cl of wine and 10g of salt. As you can see, there’s enough carbohydrates, but there might be a lack of proteins and there’s definitely a lack of vitamins.
Later on, convicts got fresh vegetables and meat on Sundays, but that was the 1830s and 40s, so Valjean didn’t profit from that.
To your third question. Is that a lot? Let’s try and find out, shall we?
My first impulse was to try and put it into numbers. How many calories does this have? And how many does a person need?
That was harder than imagined, because the food energy of something like bread, cheese or dry beans varies strongly with the type. Therefore, there’s always an upper and a lower border. The values I found (several sources spread over the entire internet) in kcal per 100g are:
Black bread: 210-350
Dry beans: 272-473
Olive oil: 930-950
That gives the total ration somewhere between 2420 and 3987 kcal. If you’re like me and have no feeling for how much a calorie is, here are Kilojoule: 10067kJ-16693kJ. You’re welcome.
The problem with the amount of calories needed is that I quite simply cannot find two webpages that agree. One did ask me the ask amount of hours spent doing a certain task and gave me values of up to 7000kcal in case I weigh 90kg, but that webpage, to make up for it, didn’t take age into account, which, according to some other webpages, can make a difference of as much as 25%. I quite simply have no idea what to believe anymore. Also, while it originally seemed to make sense to peg hard labour as the maximum amount of physical activity, I then remembered one of the most common complaints about hard labour from the time: it was a common claim that free workers actually worked harder than convicts. So should I bring this down to not-quite-as-hard physical activity?
The webpages that agreed slightly pegged the daily requirements somewhere between 1500 and 3600 kcal, depending on weight and age. I used the extremes of 50kg/90kg (arbitrary) and 16 years/70 years of age (actual age minimum/maximum after 1791). Should this be correct, then the calories found in that diet are anywhere between “just alright for a middle aged man of mean weight” and “definitely enough for everybody”. Should the other mentioned website be correct with its claim of 3700-7100kcal, then the rations would only have been sufficient for the smallest convicts in Toulon.
Clearly, that approach is getting us nowhere. So let’s try and get a feeling for ourselves…
I weighed the near fresh loaf of black bread I got yesterday and as you can see it weighs about 780g. I put the bread knife for scale, because the blade happened to be 19cm long and that amused me. A slice of this bread weighs about 50g and my scales aren’t precise enough to show a difference between this slice and the slightly larger next slice. A little back-of-the-envelope calculation revealed that the full loaf weighed approximately a kilo. So, take the loaf you see there and imagine that you add the three slices I cut before the picture was taken. You should be close to a day’s bread ration.
Beans were a little harder, simply because I don’t have any. So here’s a picture from the internet with a line drawn. Left of the line should be close to 120g of dry beans.
Now let’s take a picture of 30g of cheese. It’s on the bread slice for scale. This is a cheese from the island of Mull, so definitely not what French convicts got, but I don’t think that there are huge differences in density of hard cheese (as long as there are no holes, but that’s Swiss cheese).
Since I’m nearly out of olive oil, I went for approx. 9g of butter. Again, the preciseness of my scales makes that about +/- 5g, but I guess that’s close enough. So here’s a picture of that little piece of butter joining my lunch.
I guess you don’t need a picture to imagine 48cl of wine. Imagine half a litre-bottle.
Finally, here’s 10g of salt. If you think that’s a lot, keep in mind that you probably eat much more salt every day without noticing.
Now put that together. I guess you will agree with me that it seems like a lot of food. It’s about six slices of bread per meal, plus two meals with an okay amount of soup and a little cheese. The salt and olive oil where most likely put in the soup as well.
Finally, as an experimental physicist, my solution for everything is experiment, in other words, try it out. And I actually did that one some time ago… Because I asked myself exactly the same question when one of these “behind-the-scenes” videos was first published.
The boundary conditions: I was 23 at the time, therefore my requirements are still among the highest. It would also have placed me in the tied second most common age group (31-40 was most common and 21-30 and 41-50 have very similar numbers) in the bagne. I’m 1.75m, therefore quite a bit above average height for the time and also, I presume, above average weight. I don’t drink, so wine got substituted with grape juice. And I was a pretty useless cook then, so I took bean soup from the can and therefore weighed off 120g of “wet” beans, rather than dried beans. Finally, the physical activity aspect. The best I could do was leave a week’s worth of household and garden chores for a single day and top it off with two hours Judo practice.
The result? No chance. I was left with about 600g of bread that I just couldn’t eat anymore. Maybe that is still down to the lack of appropriate physical activity, but I actually have a hard time imagining the amount of activity needed to make up that much food.
There you have it. Three different attempts at trying to get an idea how much food there was. As a final word, I should add though, that everybody who ever visited the bagne usually commented that the food was decent. No mention ever of it being not enough (unless you count Claude Gueux, which is a different story).
This is amazing. I’m really glad they asked you and not me, because mine would have been been factually accurate but extremely dull: I would have provided the correct quantities of each food, but not pictures, and I wouldn’t have been able to speak from experience…
There are times in fiction where a forçat is said to not have enough food—for instance, the really big guy in Le Bonnet Vert who tries to supplement his rations with money made from selling crafts. There’s also the lyric “Avec ce produit d’l’aubaine, nous nous arrosons l’gosier” which suggests that crafts really were used to buy extra rations (although it could be out of a desire for better-quality food, rather than hunger).
In any case, I think it probably was a lot of food, and goes a long way towards explaining some things that might otherwise not make sense. For instance, Alhoy says that convicts would sometimes play with the children of guards and “share their bread” with them; my first response was, “Seriously? He’s gonna let that kid have his food?” But if the total bread ration is a huge-ass loaf like that, I can see why he wouldn’t object to breaking off a piece during lunchtime.
In France - in Vendée, more specifically - we have legends about weresheep.
When a big sin, like murder or arson or big thievery, is committed in a parish and no one confesses it, the vicar gets angry. For three masses he curses the guilty - without knowing who it is. It at the third mass the culprit still hasn’t confessed, he or she turns into a garache.
Every night, the cursed person will turn into a beast and must run through seven parishes before getting to sleep. The hard level of the curse forces you to cross through every hedge on the way. The soft level gives you the superpower of jumping above them.
Garaches are often werewolves, but it must depend on the priest, of the curse, or your general personality, but sometimes you get a weresheep or weregoat.
To free a garache, you have to hunt her as a beast and wound her while she runs on a specific point on the knee. If you miss and kill her, you become a garache instead.
I am so happy to have heard this.
me to o o
- un-disgruntle yourself
- comfort someone
- be comforted
- go to a quiet place
- press a magic button and fix everything
- get a hug
- see something cute
- hear rain noises
- play cute games
- cut something/someone (blood)
- break something
- open a window
- have a guided relaxation
- listen to nature sounds (or here)
- do nothing for 2 minutes
- play the piano
- make cute ecards
- make cool music (ex.)
- get an idea for what to do
- avoid boredom
- watch a dream
- have a stickman adventure
So at Mass today, I went up to the chalice, but then had a sudden… I don’t know, it was like a hiccup-y throat spasm. Point is, I accidentally spat some out onto my sweater. So… now what do I do? Like, I’m aware that the chalice gets washed in a specific sink that goes directly into the ground, but I don’t have a comparable washing machine… so do I burn it? Never wash it? Wash it and then just have all my clothes be enhanced with holiness? I’m rather disappointed that thirteen years of Catholic education somehow failed to prepare me for this.
Somebody have an answer for this?
I KNOW THE ANSWER!
Flush the spot thoroughly with water, then drain the water you used directly into/onto the ground. Then you’re good.
Sacristies will often have special sinks that drain directly into the ground so they can properly wash the sacred vessels. You’re basically using the same principle.